By: Mark Tabata (Evangelist)
Recently, I have been blessed to reconsider and reexamine one of my most cherished and fundamental beliefs.
When one embarks upon a investigation of spiritual matters, it can often be unsettling: however, through the years I have learned that this feeling is unnecessary. What does a Christian have to fear from the truth?
Not a thing.
Like the old adage says, truth is like a diamond: the harder you rub it, the brighter it shines.
It is no secret that I often work with friends and acquaintances who are non-Christian. As a member of the church of Christ, I am to be prepared to give a logical and rational defense of the Christian faith to all who would ask questions and inquire (1 Peter 3:15).
I have to be prepared to work and teach people about the certainty of the faith (Luke 1:1-4), and to be prepared to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints (Jude 3).
While Christianity is often maligned as a religion which is anti-intellectual, this charge falls short when we realize that it claims to be a religion based upon rationality (Acts 26:25) and encourages its’ followers to “test all things” (1 Thessalonians 5:21) and to carefully apply our full mental faculties to seek out the truth (cf. Deuteronomy 6:4-6).
With these things in mind, I want you to consider with me one of the most fundamental questions that we believe as Christians: is the God of the Bible the one true God?
Many would quickly affirm a powerful “YES” without much preamble or thought.
However, many of our non-Christian friends and relatives will just as quickly say “NO!!”
They might point out that the Bible talks about the existence of other gods, and they are correct. They might also point out that their gods were worshiped and served long before the Bible was written, which is a true statement in and of itself.
Let’s turn our attention to these matters and carefully consider.
One God Or Many Gods?
The first thing we need to look at is whether or not there is one God or there are many gods. The answer, I think, lies in our definition of the word “god.” There are times, for example, when the Bible affirms the existence of many gods:
Exodus 12:12- For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
Exodus 15:11-Who is like You, O LORD, among the gods? Who is like You, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?
Exodus 18:11-Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods; for in the very thing in which they behaved proudly, He was above them.”
Several other Old Testament passages make it clear that there are “gods.” Yet other passages seem to teach that there is only ONE God. One of my favorites in this category is what Jehovah declared through Isaiah the Prophet:
Isaiah 44:6-6 “Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: ‘I am the First and I am the Last; Besides Me there is no God.
So, which is it?
The answer lies in how we define the word “god.” Sometimes the word “god” is used to refer to any extremely powerful supernatural power: other times, it is used to refer to the one eternal God. Notice the contrast in Isaiah with this. God declares that besides Him, there is no God. How did He mean this statement to be understood? In context, it refers to His being the First and the Last, i.e., eternal. We know-both from philosophy and from Scripture-that there is only one eternal God. Consider this explanation:
“We know from the cosmological and divine design (teleological) evidences of the universe that God must be infinite because He created all space, all time and all matter from nothing. Infinite simply means that He is self- existent, non- spatial, immaterial, timeless, personal, unimaginably powerful and supremely intelligent etc. In other words, there is nothing lacking in Him. The fact that God is infinite impliedly rules out all pantheistic religions such as the New Age Movement, Hinduism and some forms of Buddhism that equate God to the universe as we have seen that universe is not infinite as it had a beginning and was designed by another cause. This fact also disproves polytheistic religions (the belief that there are many gods) such as Mormonism, as there logically cannot be more than one omnipresent infinite being. Let me explain more simply: If there was more than one God (e.g. God “A” and God “B”), then to distinguish one from the other they must differ in some way. If God “A” is infinite then God “B” must be less than infinite (i.e. infinite minus something), as the definition of infinite means that God “A” lacks nothing. Therefore, if God “B” is less than infinite he is not God! Therefore, we can only logically conclude that there can only be one Infinite Being or God who is transcendent or outside all time, all space and all matter.” (Paul Ferguson, God And The Atheist: A Lawyer Assesses The Evidence For The Existence Of God, 1133-1144 (Kindle Edition); Greenville,, South Carolina; Ambassador International)
This seems to be the exact point that the Apostle Paul makes in his first Letter to the Corinthians. He says:
1 Corinthians 8:4-6-4 Therefore concerning the eating of things offered to idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other God but one. 5 For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), 6 yet for us there is one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we for Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and through whom we live.
So when Scripture speaks of God being the “only” God, the idea is that He is the only TRUE God, i.e., the only true eternal Being. In contrast, the gods of the pagans are seen to be born from nature at some point in history. Further, history itself shows that the earliest civilizations and peoples worshiped one God, not many.
Now, right away, this won’t sit too well with a lot of people. Most of us have been taught in school that the earliest peoples were polytheistic (i.e., they believed in many gods and goddesses); but that assumption has been continually disproven by careful investigation of ancient civilizations and beliefs. John Blanchard has well pointed out:
“The evidence of modern archaeology is that religion has not evolved ‘upwards’, but degenerated from monotheism to pantheism and polytheism, then from these to animism and atheism, a finding confirmed by the Scottish academic Andrew Lang in The Making of Religion: ‘Of the existence of a belief in the Supreme Being among primitive tribes there is as good evidence as we possess for any fact in the ethnographic region.’6 In History of Sanskrit Literature, the Oriental expert Max Muller, recognized as the founder of the science of the history of religions, came to the conclusion: ‘There is a monotheism that precedes the polytheism of the Veda; and even in the invocations of the innumerable gods, the remembrance of a God, one and infinite, breaks through the mist of idolatrous phraseology like the blue sky that is hidden by passing clouds.’7 In The Religion of Ancient Egypt, Sir Flinders Petrie, universally acknowledged as one of the world’s leading Egyptologists, claimed, ‘Wherever we can trace back polytheism to its earliest stages, we find that it results from combinations of monotheism.’8 In Semitic Mythology, the Oxford intellectual Stephen Langdon, one of the greatest experts in his field, said, ‘In my opinion the history of the oldest civilization of man is a rapid decline from monotheism to extreme polytheism and widespread belief in evil spirits. It is in a very true sense the history of the fall of man.’9 These statements make it clear that the scenario suggested by Tyler and Frazer will not fit the facts. There is no convincing evidence for any development in nature religions from animism through polytheism to monotheism. The idea that religion itself is something man invented has proved just as baseless…The same overall picture emerges in studies centred on the traditions of the oldest civilizations known to man: original belief in a ‘High God’, followed by degeneration into polytheism, animism and other corrupt religious notions.” (John Blanchard, Does God Believe In Atheists? 514-541 (Kindle Edition): Carlisle, PA; EP Books USA)
Well, if there is only one true God, then who are the pagan gods and goddesses? The most logical answer is that the “gods” of the nations are either the inventions of men or are fallen angels and demonic spirits masquerading as “gods.” Indeed, this latter position seems to clearly be the position of the Bible and of the ancient Jews and the earliest Christians. Clinton Arnold provides some powerful confirmation of this:
“These idols, however, were not mere harmless stone images a covenant person could be indifferent to. There was a real spiritual dimension to the pagan cults and the worship of idols. Biblical writers complete the picture of Yahweh’s attitude toward false gods by portraying the pagan cults as the work of demons. In Deuteronomy 32:16-17, 17, Israel’s abandonment of God for idols in the wilderness is explicitly itly described: They made him jealous with their foreign gods and angered him with their detestable idols. They sacrificed to demons, which are not God-gods they had not known, gods that recently appeared, gods your fathers did not fear. (italics mine) The Psalms express the same thought. One psalm describes Israel’s entry into Canaan, deploring the fact that God’s people had adopted many of the local customs and had worshiped the local idols. They also “sacrificed their sons and their daughters to demons,” which the psalmist sets parallel with the statement that they “sacrificed to the idols of Canaan” (Ps 106:37-38). In Psalm 96:5, where the Hebrew text reads, “for all the gods of the nations are idols,” the Septuagint text (the Greek translation) reads, “for all the gods of the nations are demons.” The Septuagint reflects the Jewish conviction that pagan religions had a close affiliation with the demonic realm. This belief also became the conviction of the apostle Paul (1 Cor 10:19-21).” (Clinton Arnold, Powers Of Darkness: Principalities & Powers In Paul’s Letters, 56-57 (Kindle Edition); Downers Grove, Illinois; InterVarsity Press)
Now, let’s take a look and consider some evidences that the God of the Bible is the one true God.
Evidence One: The One True God Is The God Of The Bible Because He Is Identical With The God Displayed In Nature
When one carefully examines nature, he begins to realize that there are certain characteristics of the Creator manifest through the universe itself. Two authors, Sean McDowell and Jonathan Morrow, have illustrated some of these characteristics in this way:
“There is also good philosophical evidence for the beginning of the universe. For instance, imagine you went for a walk in the park and stumbled across someone proclaiming aloud, “… five, four, three, two, one—there, I finally finished! I just counted down from infinity!” What would be your initial thought? Would you wonder how long the person had been counting? Probably not. More likely, you would be in utter disbelief. Why? Because you know that such a task cannot be done. Just as it’s impossible to count up to infinity from the present moment, it’s equally impossible to count down from negative infinity to the present moment. Counting to infinity is impossible because there is always (at least) one more number to count. In fact, every time you count a number, you still have infinite more to go, and thus get no closer to your goal. Similarly, counting down from infinity to the present moment is equally impossible. Such a task can’t even get started! Any point you pick in the past to begin, no matter how remote, would always require (at least) one more number to count before you could start there. Any beginning point would require an infinite number of previous points. Here’s the bottom line: we could never get to the present moment if we had to cross an actual infinite number of moments in the past. Yet, since the present moment is real, it must have been preceded by a finite past that includes a beginning or first event.7 Therefore, the universe had a beginning…What the kalam reveals is that the universe was made and that someone made it. Further, the kalam helps narrow the range of possible causes to a being that is nonphysical, spaceless, timeless, changeless, and powerful: If matter began to exist at the moment of creation, then the matter’s cause must be nonphysical, or spiritual. Since space itself came into existence at the big bang, space’s cause must be spaceless. Since time began at the moment of the big bang, time’s cause must be timeless. Since change is a product of time, time’s cause must also be changeless. Given the immensity of energy and matter that comprises the universe, energy and matter’s cause must be unimaginably powerful.” (Sean McDowell & Jonathan Morrow, Is God Just A Human Invention? And Seventeen Other Questions Raised By The New Atheists, 1383-1443 (Kindle Edition): Grand Rapids, Michigan; Kregel)
When we compare the traits of God as demonstrated through nature with the God of the Bible, we see that they line up perfectly:
“This God Who Exists Is Identical to the God Described in the Christian tian Scriptures. The God described in the Bible is said to be eternal (Col. 1 :16; Heb. 1:2), changeless (Mal. 3:6; Heb. 6:18), infinite (I Kings 8:27; Isa. 66:1), all-loving (John 3:16; I John 4:16), and all-powerful (Heb. 1:3; Matt. 19:26). But there cannot be two infinitely perfect, changeless, eternal beings. First, there can be only one infinite and necessary sary Being, as was shown above (p. 239f.). Second, there could not be two beings who have all possible perfections attributable to them. For in order to be two beings one would have to differ from the other; where there is no difference in being there is only one being. But there can be no difference unless one being has something the other does not. But if there is something that an infinite being can have but one lacks, then the one lacking it is not absolutely perfect. Hence, there is only one absolutely perfect being. But if there cannot be two such beings, then the God described scribed in the Bible is identical to the God concluded from the above argument. Therefore, the God Described in the Bible Exists. If there is only one God and the God described in the Bible is identical in characteristics to him, then it follows logically that the God described in the Bible exists. For there cannot be two infinitely perfect beings; there cannot be two such ultimates or absolutes, and so forth. Hence, the God portrayed in Scripture does indeed exist.” (Norman Geisler, Christian Apologetics, 249-250 (Kindle Edition); Grand Rapids, Michigan; Baker Books House)
Nature’s God is the God of the Bible.
Evidence Two: The One True God Is The God Of The Bible Because Of His Detailed Knowledge Of The Future
One of the greatest evidences that the God of the Bible is the one true God is seen in HIs Divine foresight into the future. Since He exists outside of time, God is able to amazingly foretell and forewarn of future events. Throughout the Book of Isaiah, God challenges the gods of the non-Hebrews to draw into contest with Him in this manner. For example, we read:
Isaiah 41:21-24-21 “Present your case,” says the LORD. “Bring forth your strong reasons,” says the King of Jacob. 22 “Let them bring forth and show us what will happen; Let them show the former things, what they were, That we may consider them, And know the latter end of them; Or declare to us things to come. 23 Show the things that are to come hereafter, That we may know that you are gods; Yes, do good or do evil, That we may be dismayed and see it together. 24 Indeed you are nothing, And your work is nothing; He who chooses you is an abomination.
Isaiah 44:7-8-7 And who can proclaim as I do? Then let him declare it and set it in order for Me, Since I appointed the ancient people. And the things that are coming and shall come, Let them show these to them. 8 Do not fear, nor be afraid; Have I not told you from that time, and declared it? You are My witnesses. Is there a God besides Me? Indeed there is no other Rock; I know not one.’
Isaiah 46:9-10-9 Remember the former things of old, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like Me, 10 Declaring the end from the beginning, And from ancient times things that are not yet done, Saying, ‘My counsel shall stand, And I will do all My pleasure,’
The God of the Bible clearly foretold hundreds and hundreds of detailed facts of the future which then came to pass at the time He said that they would, and in the manner in which He declared that they would. The gods of the pagans, on the other hand, often relied on emotionalism, drugs, and manipulation to deceive their followers. Kenny Barfield, having studied extensively into the subject, tells us:
“Using historical and archaeological data, researchers established several facts: (1) Inquirers visited the oracle at a complex underground location. (2) Before presenting an inquiry, visitors faced a month of mind-altering experiences. These included solitary confinement in a room plastered with dreadful pictorial representations of the underworld. (3) Visitors lived for a month in extremely cramped quarters, shut off from natural light. (4) The only light came from lamps probably burning hashish. The psychological setting, coupled with the inhalation of vast amounts of hashish, possible bathing in drugged water, and ingestion of drugs by various mechanisms, guaranteed vivid, strong, and repeated hallucinations.” (Kenny Barfield, The Prophet Motive: Examining The Reliability Of The Biblical Prophets, 195; Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate Company)
Several non-Christians I have studied with have told me clearly that their gods and goddesses do not possess the ability to see into the future.
Well, are there credible evidences of Bible prophecy and fulfillment?
Indeed, there are!
For one example, consider the fact that Daniel the Prophet clearly foretold the rise of four great world empires (Daniel 2:36-44) during which time the God of Heaven would establish a kingdom which would never be destroyed (Daniel 2:44-45). Further, he correctly prophesied the breakdown of the fourth of these world empires into ten smaller kingdoms, and foresaw the rise of the Roman Catholic papacy from the remnants thereof (Daniel 7:1-24). This was all foreseen well described over one thousand years beforehand!
There are many other examples we could consider such as the prophecies of the destruction of Tyre (Ezekiel 26:3-14, 21), Edom (Jeremiah 49:17-18), the amazing foretelling of the events between the Testaments (Daniel 11), and on and on we could go!
We could also consider the hundreds of prophecies found throughout the Old Testament which were perfectly and minutely fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Acts 10:39-43).
Sometimes it is claimed that these prophecies were simply manipulated by Jesus: yet a little consideration will show that this is impossible. As Kyle Butt has pointed out:
“Due to this overwhelming congruence of the life of Jesus Christ with the predictive Messianic prophecy of the Old Testament, some have suggested that Jesus was an imposter who was able, by masterful manipulation, to so artificially organize His life as to make it look like He was the Messiah. Such a contention cannot be reasonably maintained in light of the fact that many of the prophecies were far beyond His control. Obviously, it would be impossible for a person to arrange where he would be born. Furthermore, it would be impossible to coordinate events so that He could ensure that He was buried in the tomb of a rich man or crucified among thieves. How could the betrayal price of Judas be manipulated by Jesus? And how, pray tell, would Jesus have managed to arrange it so that soldiers cast lots for His clothing? The idea that Jesus manipulated events to make it appear as if He was the Messiah not only is indefensible, but it also speaks to the fact that Jesus obviously was the fulfillment of the Old Testament, Messianic prophecies.” (Kyle Butt, Behold! The Word Of God, 2339-2345 (Kindle Edition); Montgomery, Alabama; Apologetics Press)
Further, Jesus could not have fulfilled the prophecies which declared He would confirm His Messiahship through the performing of great miracles (Deuteronomy 18:15-18; Isaiah 35:5-6). The New Testament Scriptures are historically authentic, being both genuine and credible; and they clearly relate to us the miracles Jesus performed. Further, several extra-biblical witnesses testify to the miracles of the Messiah and His Apostles (including Christian, Jewish, and pagan sources).
The differences between the God of the Bible and the gods of the pagans are great indeed.
Evidence Three: The Miracles Of The Bible Confirm That The God Of The Bible Is The One True God
The miracles of the Bible are powerful evidence that Jehovah is the one true God. A miracle is an act which transcends natural law. We are told that the miracles of the Bible were done in order to confirm that the authenticity and the Word of the Prophets and Apostles. For example:
Nehemiah 9:10-(NKJV) You showed signs and wonders against Pharaoh, Against all his servants, And against all the people of his land. For You knew that they acted proudly against them. So You made a name for Yourself, as it is this day.
Numbers 14:11-Then the LORD said to Moses: “How long will these people reject Me? And how long will they not believe Me, with all the signs which I have performed among them?
Deuteronomy 4:34-Or did God ever try to go and take for Himself a nation from the midst of another nation, by trials, by signs, by wonders, by war, by a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, and by great terrors, according to all that the LORD your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes?
Acts 2:22-Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know—
Hebrews 2:3-4-3 how shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation, which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to us by those who heard Him,
4 God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit, according to His own will?
These miracles were attested and verified by credible witnesses. Many of these witnesses are extra-biblical in nature, and some are even completely hostile to the inspired Writers.
What is more, the miracles of the one true God demonstrated His power over the false gods in the world.
For example, consider that the miracles of the Ten Plagues in Egypt was actually a display of the one true God over various Egyptian gods and goddesses. The Bible tells us that in these Ten Plagues, God was confirming His superiority over the Egyptian pantheon.
Exodus 12:12-For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
Exodus 18:11-Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods; for in the very thing in which they behaved proudly, He was above them.”
One author, speaking of how the Ten Plagues showcase Jehovah’s superiority over corresponding Egyptian deities, tells us:
“It is said that the Egyptians of this time worshipped over eighty different deities. They would have only been rivaled by India in their polytheism. Like the Indian’s, they worshipped a large number of animals and anthropomorphic beings as gods. The animals considered to be sacred included many insects like the scarab and locust; many mammals like the lion, ox, ram, wolf, dog, and cat; many fowls like the falcon, and vulture; many aquatic creatures like fish, frogs, and crocodiles; and very prominently we find the worship of the cobra…The cobra also represents the goddess Wadjet, one of the earliest of Egyptian deities….So here in this pre- plague encounter between Moses and Pharaoh we see that God Almighty, the LORD, Jehovah is showing Pharaoh that his goddess, Wadjet, the cobra, is not a god at all….Why would Pharaoh not even consider this plague? The pre- plague encounter was a challenge to the Egyptian god Wadjet but this first plague against the general population of Egypt was an attack upon multiple gods related to the worship of the Nile River…Khnum was one of the earliest of the Egyptian gods….Hapi is another of the Nile River gods. He was also said to be the god that provided the Nile River and the fish and birds of its marshes to the Egyptian people. He was also a fertility god bringing life to the land through the yearly flooding of the Nile River….Osiris is the god of the underworld who sees to it that the dead are judged. He is considered to be the god of the resurrection and of new life. He is closely associated with the changing of seasons. He was betrayed by friends and placed in a box which was cast into the Nile River. It was commonly believed that it was his blood that flowed in the Nile that brought life to Egypt. In Figure 4, Osiris is seen on a bier with wheat growing from him….Tauret is the goddess who is depicted as a pregnant hippopotamus. She is another fertility goddess symbolizing the rebirth and regeneration associated with the Nile River. In Figure 5, she is seen standing on her hind legs and holding the key of life….Nu is said to be the oldest of the ancient Egyptian gods. He is said to be the father of the sun god, Re…The purpose of this plague is the same as the former encounters between Pharaoh and Moses. This plague was meant to reveal to Pharaoh that the LORD Jehovah is the one true God. All that Pharaoh has been taught and all that he believes is being challenged by the message of the LORD. I believe that the message of the LORD has that same power today….The first plague was against the various gods and goddesses of the Nile River but this plague seems to be against one specific goddess named Heqet. She is depicted as being in the form of a frog or as a woman with a frog head. She is often associated with the god Khnum….She was also a goddess of childbirth. Many women would wear an amulet or bracelet with her depiction to protect them during their pregnancy. It is commonly believed that the midwives in ancient Egypt were called ministers of Heqet. But like the last plague the LORD showed that there is no God but Jehovah…This particular plague is generally thought to be against the Egyptian god of the earth named Geb. He was known as a fertility god and was thought to be in control of everything on, in, or under the earth…The Egyptians worshipped many gods and goddesses and it is commonly reported that one of those goddesses was named Uatchit. She was said to be depicted as a woman with a fly’s head…In Egypt the cattle, especially the bulls, were worshipped. Apis is the bull god (Figure 12, next page). A bull that matched specific markings would be selected from the herd and brought to the temple. This bull was given a harem of cows. When the bull died, it was mourned over as though a Pharaoh had died. These bulls would be buried in elaborate religious ceremonies….As with the other plagues, this plague strikes at the gods of the Egyptians. One of the few gods of the Egyptians that was actually a person was the god Imhotep (Figure 13). It is said that Imhotep was a very educated person that served a Pharaoh of the third dynasty (around 2700 BC). He was reported to be a priest, writer, a doctor, and a founder of the Egyptian studies of astronomy and architecture. Imhotep is associated with another god named Nefertem. This god was believed to help ease pain and suffering through medicine (Figure 14). Yet, as with the other gods of Egypt, Nefertem or Imhotep could not stand before the LORD Jehovah. The LORD has struck against the Nile River, the life line of Egypt. The Nile River’s waters turned to blood, it brought forth a multitude of frogs and the Scriptures say that the land stank. The LORD struck against the soil of Egypt, the fertile fields brought forth plagues of lice and flies, instead of produce. The LORD struck against the wealth of Egypt, killing millions upon millions of cattle, camels, horses, and other livestock. With this plague, the LORD has struck against the physical health of the Egyptians…This plague brings destruction and even death to men, animals, and crops of Egypt. The Egyptians worshipped gods of weather like Tefnut, the goddess of moisture (Figure 15) and Set, the god of weather who had a voice of thunder (Figure 16). The Egyptians also worshipped a god named Ami, who was the god of fire and Maahes, the god of storms. But the LORD God of the Hebrews is the only true and living God…Egypt had several gods and goddesses of agriculture that they believed protected the growing of the crops and the harvesting of the crops. Osiris and Isis (Figure 17) are two examples of these gods and goddesses…Isis is the sister wife of Osiris. She is credited with teaching women skills necessary to be a good wife including growing crops, grinding corn, and making bread. As in the other plagues, these gods and goddesses could not stand before the one true living God, the LORD God of the Hebrews…Perhaps the most powerful god in all of Egyptian mythology is Amen- Ra, the sun god (Figure 18). Amen- Ra represented light, warmth, and growth but for three days the LORD had rendered Amen- Ra to be powerless. There was no light, no warmth, and no growth. Once again, the LORD has demonstrated that He alone is the one true living God….Many of the gods and goddesses of Egypt had some connection to fertility but for this study we will consider just two of them. Bes is probably one of the most unusual of all of the Egyptian gods (Figure 19). His appearance is very much that of something other than an Egyptian. Adding to his uniqueness is that he is almost always depicted from a full front view rather than the normal profile view of most gods. It was believed that during the birth of a child, Bes would dance about the room to protect the child from evil gods. He was also believed to stay nearby the child to entertain them. Egyptians attributed Bes as being the cause of the laughter or smile of a baby. This final plague shows that indeed it is the LORD who is the one true living God. None of the gods or goddesses of Egypt could stand before Him.” (Ron Knapp, Jr. When I Smite Egypt: The Ten Plagues Of Egypt, 380-2085 (Kindle Edition))
Attempts to deny that the Ten Plagues of Egypt happened are destined to fail for several reasons.
First, the entire history of Judaism (both inside and outside the Bible) confirm the slavery of Israel in Egypt, the occurrence of the Ten Plagues, and the Exodus.
Second, several ancient Egyptian records also confirm the same facts. Consider the slavery of the Hebrews in Egypt, for example:
“There is no doubt that there was a significant Semitic population throughout Egypt during the New Kingdom (see chap. 3).Because of the preponderance of epigraphic evidence for a Syro-Palestinian presence in Egypt from the mid to late second millennium B.C., even the most skeptical historian cannot dismiss the fact that both the Bible and Egyptian sources agree on this situation.42 Even as far south as Thebes there was a significant number of Semitic-speaking people during the Empire period.43 The names of Semites have even turned up among the workers of Deir el-Medineh in western Thebes.44” (James K. Hoffmeier, Israel In Egypt: The Evidence For The Authenticity Of The Exodus Tradition, 3689-3697 (Kindle Edition); New York, New York; Oxford University Press)
“If the children of Jacob were never slaves in Egypt in the first place, then how comes it that there lies in the Brooklyn Museum a papyrus, conventionally dated to around 1700 BC, which lists a number of Hebrew slaves, slaves who possessed such familiar names as Shiphrah and Menahem? 12 Shiphrah is of considerable interest to us, for that is the name of one of the Hebrew midwives mentioned in Exodus 1:15. Is it one and the same person? Who knows? However, not only the slaves’ names, but their offices and duties are also listed – ‘chief over the house’ (the very same office, that of ‘mer- per’, which Joseph held under Potiphar), ‘house servant’ and so on. Out of 95 slaves listed for this particular household, 37 no less are Hebrew. 13” (Bill Cooper, The Authenticity Of The Book Of Genesis, 2035-2040 (Kindle Edition)).
Regarding the miracles of the Exodus, there are at least two types of evidence which show that these occurred: the manuscript evidence, and the fact of several mummies which have been uncovered:
“Though the evidence for the Exodus has been slow to be gathered, there is good reason to believe that it actually occurred as described in the Bible. This thinking is based on the biblical testimony, Egyptian extrabiblical sources, and archaeological excavation in Egypt and neighboring regions. For example, one of the most well-known known documents in Egyptology is the Ipuwer papyrus (officially known as Papyrus Leiden 344), which records an account remarkably similar to the plagues described in the book of Exodus. The papyrus was obtained b y Swedish diplomat, Giovanni Anastasi, and sold to the Leiden Museum in Holland in 1828. No one realized the exact significance of the contents of the document until the first full translation was done in 1909 by a British Egyptologist, Alan H.Gardiner, under the title The Admonitions of an Egyptian tian Sage from a Hieratic Papyrus in Leiden. In addition, there have been many later full translations made, including an Oxford edition (2009). Currently, the document is stored at the National Museum of Antiquities in the Netherlands. Its contents are widely regarded by Egyptologists as a lamentation over the catastrophic conditions in Egypt written by a high Egyptian official named Ipuwer sometime time prior to the thirteenth century BC (which is consistent with either an early or late chronology for the Exodus) .* Ipuwer was known as one of the great wise sages in Egyptian tian history. His astonishing description of the conditions, to the surprise of Egyptologists, gists, appeared remarkably similar to the biblical account of the ten plagues recorded in the book of Exodus. The date of the Ipuwer manuscript approximately fits the Exodus date. The hieratic script style was in use at that time period, the events described are remarkably similar to the plagues, the location of the events (Egypt) matches the setting of the Exodus, and the odds of all these calamities occurring at the same time make them more than coincidental. dental. There is no scientific, linguistic, or historical fact that Egyptologists can point to that would decisively preclude the content of the papyrus being a lament over the Exodus plagues. A simple comparison of the content in both the book of Exodus and the Ipuwer papyrus leaves little doubt to their similarities (see table below).” (Joseph M. Holden & Norman Geisler, The Popular Handbook Of Archaeology And The Bible: Discoveries That Confirm The Reliability of Scripture, 2555-2568 (Kindle Edition); Eugene, Oregon; Harvest House Publishers).
“Evidence for the plague of boils which God brought upon Egypt may have come to light. In 2009, a fellow researcher, Ed Kaspar, wrote an article in which he proposed that the Exodus Pharaoh was Thutmose II. This is based upon recent CAT scans of the pharaoh’s mummy as well as quotes from the original archaeologists that examined the mummy back in 1886 and 1912. The examinations and CAT scans revealed that Thutmose II had scarring on his flesh which may have come from a skin disease consistent with that of boils. Other mummies of individuals who were alive at the same time as Thutmose II were also found to have this same scaring. Those mummies included his wife Queen Hatshepsut, her wet nurse Sitre- In, and her stepson Thutmose III. One Biblical timeline when matched up against one commonly used Egyptian Pharaoh timeline also has the Exodus falling on a date very close to the death of Thutmose II. If Thutmose II was in fact the Pharaoh of the Exodus, there are some very interesting coincidences to support this. For example one common Egyptian timeline has Thutmose II dying in 1486 B.C., this would therefore be considered the date of the Exodus. According to the Bible, Moses was 80 years old at that time. Adding 80 Biblical years to 1486 B.C. would give the date of his birth. (Note a Biblical year is based upon a 360 day calendar year not 365 days. So 1486 + (80 years x 360/365) = 1565 B.C., the date of Moses birth. The most likely candidate for Pharaoh at this time was a man named Seqenenre Tao. What is interesting about him is that all of his children’s names, both sons and daughters, were comprised of the name “mose.” Their names were Ahmose, Kamose, Ahmose- Nefertari, Ahmose- Henuttamehu, Ahmose- Sipair, Ahmose- Henutemipet, Ahmose- Meritamon, Ahmose- Nebetta, and Ahmose- Tumerisy.” (John Argubright, Bible Believers Archaeology-Volume 3: Behold The Man!, 606-626 (Kindle Edition); LaSalle, Illinois).
Interestingly enough, others have noticed the similarities between the name of “Moses” and Egyptian dynasties:
“However, the Bible tells us that pharaoh’s daughter, an Egyptian, gave Moses his name, Exodus 2:10. Research into his name concedes something exciting Moses shared an Egyptian royal name of the New Kingdom! During the period of the Hebrews enslavement and the exodus, five pharaohs ruled who shared a similar name with Moses. Pharaoh Ahmose, Pharaoh Thutmosis I, II, III and IV. When the name of Moses and the names of these pharaohs were translated into English, the spellings varied depending on the scholars, but the root meaning stayed the same. Just as these pharaohs were the children of their gods, so the name of Moses infers that he was a child of Egypt.” (Paul Backholer, The Exodus Evidence In Pictures by Paul Backholer. The Bible’s Exodus. The Hunt for Ancient Israel in Egypt, The Red Sea, The Exodus Route and Mount Sinai: What Archaeological Data Can Be Found to Validate the Biblical Account of Joseph, Moses and the Hebrew Exodus from Ancient Egypt?, 322-327 (Kindle Edition); ByFaith Media)
Third, other non-Jewish historians (such as Herodotus and Strabo) clearly mention the Exodus in their writings.
The evidence is clear: the one true God is the God of the Bible. He alone is the eternal God Who has revealed Himself through nature and through His Word, the Bible (Romans 1:18-20; 2 Timothy 3:16-17). While we could investigate other lines of evidence which demonstrate this truth even more powerfully (and no doubt we shall in the future), this should be sufficient to convince us to acknowledge this one true God and surrender ourselves to Him (Acts 2:37-38).
The grace of The Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all. Amen.
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