Paganism Study Course: Lesson One

Basic Principles

Mark Tabata (Evangelist)

(More Bible Studies Available @


The phrase “pagan” as we use the term today actually embraces several religious themes and ideas, almost all of them a combination of polytheism (belief in many gods and goddesses) and including various forms and blends of Hinduism, Buddhism, and witchcraft.

Yet what does the word “pagan” actually mean?

Geisler, in his article on “Neopaganism,” summarizes it well:

“Neopaganism is not a monolithic movement. It springs from the soil of paganism, “Hinduism, wicca, and, indirectly, atheism, and other systems. Modern *atheism fertilized the soil out of which contemporary neopaganism grew. David Miller describes it as rising from the ashes of the “death of God” heralded by Thomas *Altizer and others in the 1960s and 1970s. “The death of God gives rise to the rebirth of the gods,” according to Miller. When God died in modern culture, the ancient gods rose again. Monotheism was holding back paganism. Ancient Polytheism. Of course, the main root of Neopaganism is ancient Greek and Roman polytheism….This tradition may be behind recent interest in the occult, magic, extraterrestrial life, Eastern societies and religions, communes, new forms of multiple family life, and other alternative life-style meaning systems that seem so foreign (ibid., 11)….Hinduism. Not all modern paganism comes from Greece. The revival of “*Buddhism and especially Hinduism, with its multi-millions of gods, also supports New Age religion and Neopaganism. Hinduism has infiltrated virtually every level of Western culture, tailored to fit Western humanism by teaching that each of us is a little god. Witchcraft (Wicca) and Radical Feminism. Another stream is the religion of wicca. This movement, popularly known as witchcraft, has a strong overlap with the feminist movement. Wiccans have an abhorrence to monotheism (see THEISM). Feminist witch Margot Adler expresses this view. Adler refers to monotheism as one of the totalistic religious and political views that dominate society (Adler)….Obviously a variety of beliefs are practiced under the broad neopagan heading. There are some generally shared characteristics and beliefs that draw on polytheism, the occult, relativism, and pluralism.” (Norman Geisler, Baker Encyclopedia Of Christian Apologetics, 523 (Kindle Edition); Grand Rapids, Michigan; Baker Books)

Paganism is an umbrella term that encompasses several different non-Christian philosophies and beliefs.

Does God Exist?

Pagans and Christians share common ground in acknowledging that there must be some kind of God (or gods) that transcend the material universe. Modern science confirms this in amazing ways.

For example, the famous scientist Albert Einstein (who was neither a Christian nor a pagan) describes the ways that the study of science points to a Creator.

(The following quotations are from a book written by a former atheist scientist, John M. Kinston, Does Mathematics Point To God? Vignettes From An Ex-Atheist Scientist, 8671-8713 (Kindle Edition)).

“The deeper one penetrates into nature’s secrets, the greater becomes one’s respect for God.” (Einstein, as quoted in Denis Brian, Einstein: A Life, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1996, 119).

“I want to know how God created this world. I am not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts, the rest are details.” (Einstein, as quoted in Ronald Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, London, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd., 1973, 33).

“My religiosity consists in a humble admiration of the infinitely superior Spirit that reveals itself in the little that we, with our weak and transitory understanding, can comprehend of reality.” (Einstein 1936, as quoted in Helen Dukas, and Banesh Hoffmann, eds. Albert Einstein: The Human Side. (New Glimpses from His Archives). Princeton University Press, 1979, 66).

“Certain it is that a conviction, akin to religious feeling, of the rationality or intelligibility of the world lies behind all scientific work of a higher order. This firm belief, a belief bound up with deep feeling, in a superior Mind that reveals itself in the world of experience, represents my conception of God.” (Einstein, as quoted in Ronald Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, London, Hodder and Stoughton Ltd., 1973, 255).

“Strenuous intellectual work and the study of God’s Nature are the angels that will lead me through all the troubles of this life with consolation, strength, and uncompromising rigor.” (Einstein, as quoted in Alice Calaprice, ed. The Expanded Quotable Einstein. Princeton University Press, 2000, ch. 1).

“The most beautiful and most profound emotion we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. It is the sower of all true science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. That deeply emotional conviction of the presence of a superior Reasoning Power, which is revealed in the incomprehensible Universe, forms my idea of God.” (Einstein, as quoted in Libby Anfinsen, Memorial speech for Christian Anfinsen at Memorial Garden Dedication, Weizmann Institute. November 16. The Christian Anfinsen Papers. Profiles in Science. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1995).

“We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many different languages. The child knows someone must have written those books. It does not know how. It does not understand the languages in which they are written. The child dimly suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books, but doesn’t know what it is. That, it seems to me, is the attitude of even the most intelligent human being toward God. We see a Universe marvelously arranged and obeying certain laws, but only dimly understand these laws. Our limited minds cannot grasp the mysterious force that moves the constellations.” (Einstein, as quoted in Denis Brian, Einstein: A Life, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1996, 186).

“Everyone who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that a Spirit is manifest in the laws of the universe –a Spirit vastly superior to that of man, and one in the face of which we with our modest powers must feel humble. In this way the pursuit of science leads to a religious feeling of a special sort, which is indeed quite different from the religiosity of someone more naive.” (Einstein, as quoted in Dukas and Hoffmann, Albert Einstein: The Human Side, Princeton University Press, 1979, 33).

There is indeed common ground here upon which Christians and pagans may find agreement and move forward together in our pursuit of truth.

Pagan Scriptures

Since paganism is an umbrella term which embraces numerous faiths, there are several texts which would be considered sacred to the followers of those religions. In future lessons, we will examine some of them in greater detail.


Christians believe that the Bible is the Word and that Jesus Christ is the Son of God because of various evidences and proofs which substantiate these claims.

Homer Hailey has written:

“The function of reason per se is not to determine whether the fact was possible or impossible. Reason cannot determine whether one could begotten in the womb of a woman unimpregnated by the male sperm, or whether a dead body could be raised to life again. Rather, its function is to weigh the evidence that claims to sustain the facts. Reason must sit in judgment on the evidence and determine it valid or invalid, trustworthy or untrustworthy, strong or weak. When it has done this and has deduced a conclusion on the weight of the evidence, it has served its purpose. Will must then take over.” (Homer Hailey, That You May Believe, 19; Las Vegas, Nevada; Nevada Publications).

Was Jesus Christ A Pagan?

Pagans are often taught that Jesus was Himself a pagan.

For example:

“I then asked a question that so many wiccans avoid or revolt against, “what about Jesus?” God’s reply was strong in this, “We have had children with mortals and only the purest of heart can ever bare the seed of one of us.” The goddess then spoke, “We have chosen many mortals to bear what you call a demi-god. The Greeks have their myths, the Egyptians, the Norse, the Christian; all have a demi-god or more in their stories. Many of them true, they did exist. In times of great troubles, we chose a woman pure to bare a god born child. All around the world they have been born, and each have taught our truths, Arjuna , Bali, Chandra, Amphion, were each such godborns, and their spawn with mortals continued his power diluting with human blood with each generation until power was all that was left to carry. With each godborn they each had messages similar of what we needed spoken to the people, Love, no harm, peace, forgiveness. Many spread our word and some coveted prayer to nourish them as they like you have free will. Many mysteries surround each and will always until you yourself are a being of light. Only then will you be able understand what your mortal mind cannot. Our children have had children, the holy grail is nothing but the womb of a mortal and a demigod having children that empowered a bloodline continuing grace and power. The strongest of witches are descended from what we call godborns, and what you call demigods. It explains their power, Moses split the sea for his ancestry was of us. His grandparent was an Egyptian godborn whom had power over water. Jesus had dominions over life and he too was nothing more than a godborn and he too had children, which had children, as do all godborns. There are so many generations that have passed beyond mortal memory and beyond the written word. It is why some witches are naturally stronger than others. It is divine power from us through the bloodlines. I leave you with this, Many have existed, some have been fabricated, however a true witch will know in their heart the truth. A true being with power of sight, or of mind will know and sense the truth. All paths of love lead to us and many whom lead the people back to love have a calling that is not only from us, but is in their blood as well. It is the blood of their ancestors telling them the truth and giving them the strength and power to do so.” (Eric Williams (Star Soul), The Ericonian Witch’s Bible: Text of the Ericonian Wiccan Tradition, 22-23 (Kindle Edition))

What are the facts?

The Proof Of Miracles

One proof that Jesus Christ is the Son of God is that He worked numerous miracles.

Mark 16:20-And they went out and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them and confirming the word through the accompanying signs. Amen.

John 3:2-This man came to Jesus by night and said to Him, “Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that You do unless God is with him.”

John 20:30-31-And truly Jesus did many other signs in the presence of His disciples, which are not written in this book; 31  but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name.

Acts 2:22-Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know—

Acts 2:43-Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

Acts 5:12-And through the hands of the apostles many signs and wonders were done among the people. And they were all with one accord in Solomon’s Porch.

2 Corinthians 12:12-Truly the signs of an apostle were accomplished among you with all perseverance, in signs and wonders and mighty deeds.

Hebrews 2:4-God also bearing witness both with signs and wonders, with various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit, according to His own will?

The purpose of these miracles was to provide evidence and to create faith in Him and His Word.

“In at least eighteen of Jesus’ miracles, faith is not present explicitly or implicitly. In some cases the faith is a result of the miracle, not a condition of it. When Jesus turned water to wine, “He thus revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in him” (John 2:11). Jesus’ disciples did not believe he could feed the 5000 by multiplying loaves and fishes (Luke 9:13–14; cf. Matt. 14:17). Even after they had seen Jesus feed 5000, they disbelieved he could do it again for 4000 (Matt. 15:33). In the case of the paralytic, Jesus healed him when he saw the faith of the four who carried him to Jesus, not the faith of the man himself (Mark 2:5). In seven miracles Jesus could not have required faith. This is certainly true of the three he raised from the dead. Yet Jesus raised Lazarus (John 11), the widow’s son (Luke 7), and Jairus’s daughter (Matthew 9). The same is true of the cursed fig tree (Matt. 21), the miracle of the tax money in the fish (Matt. 17:24–27), the two times Jesus multiplied loaves (Matt. 14:15), and his calming of the sea (Matt. 8:18–27). Neither can it be shown that faith of the disciples was required. In most cases the disciples lacked faith. In the miracle of raising Lazarus, Jesus prayed that those present might believe that God has sent him (John 11:42). Just before Jesus rebuked the waves, he said to the disciples, “Where is your faith?” (Luke 8:25). After he calmed the waters he asked, “Do you still have no faith?” (Mark 4:40). Sometimes Jesus performed miracles in spite of unbelief. The disciples lacked faith to cast the demon out of the boy (Matt. 17:14–21). Even the passage most often used to show that faith is necessary for miracles proves just the opposite. Matthew 13:58 tells us that “Jesus did not do many miracles there because of their lack of faith.” However, in spite of the unbelief present, Jesus laid “his hands on a few sick people and healed them” (Mark 6:5).” (Norman L. Geisler, Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics (Baker Reference Library), 301-302 (Kindle Edition); Grand Rapids, Michigan; Baker Books)

Here is a partial list of Jesus’ miracles:

1. Water Turned To Wine (John 2:1)

2. Many Healings (Matthew 4:23; Mark 1:32)

3. Healing Of A Leper (Matthew 8:1; Mark 1:40; Luke 5:12)

4. Healing Of A Roman Centurion’s Servant (Matthew 8:5; Luke 7:1)

5. Healing Of Peter’s Mother-In-Law (Matthew 8:14; Mark 1:29; Luke 4:38)

6. Calming Of The Storms At Sea (Matthew 8;23; Mark 4:35; Luke 8:22)

7. Healing Of The Demoniacs Of Gadara (Mathew 8:28; Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26)

8. Healing Of The Lame Man (Matthew 9:1; Mark 2:1; Luke 5:18)

9. Healing Of A Woman With A Hemorrhage (Matthew 9:20; Mark 5:25; Luke 8:43)

10. Raising Of Jairus’s Daughter (Matthew 9:23; Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41)

11. Healing Of Two Blind Men (Matthew 9;27)

12. Healing Of A Demon Possessed Man (Matthew 9:32)

13. Healing Of A Man With A Withered Hand (Matthew 12:10; Mark 3:1; Luke 6:6)

14. Feeding Of 5, 000 People (Matthew 14:15; Mark 6:35; Luke 9:12; John 6:1)

15. Walking On The Sea (Matthew 14:22; Mark 6:47; John 6:16)

16. Healing Of The Syrophoenician’s Daughter (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24)

17. Feeding Of 4, 000 People (Matthew 15:32; Mark 8:1)

18. Healing Of An Epileptic Boy (Matthew 17:14; Mark 9:14; Luke 9:37)

19. Healing Of Two Blind Men At Jericho (Matthew 20:30)

20. Healing Of A Man With An Unclean Spirit (Mark 1:23; Luke 4:33)

21. Healing Of A Deaf Speechless Man (Mark 7:31)

22. Healing Of A Blind Man At Bethesda (Mark 8:22)

23. Healing Of Blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46; Luke 18:35)

24. Miraculous Catch Of Fish (Luke 5:4)

25. Raising Of A Widow’s Son (Luke 7:11)

26. Healing Of A Stooped Woman (Luke 13:11)

27. Healing Of A Man With Dropsy (Luke 14:1)

28. Healing Of Ten Lepers (Luke 17:11)

29. Healing Of Malchus’s Ear (Luke 22:50)

30. Healing Of A Royal Official’s Son (John 4:46)

31. Healing Of A Lame Man At Bethesda (John 5:1)

32. Healing Of A Blind Man (John 9:1)

33. Raising Of Lazarus (John 11:38)

34. Resurrection Of Jesus From The Dead (Matthew 28: Mark 16: Luke 24; John 21)

35. Miraculous Catch Of Fish (John 21)

Other Ancient Historians Confirm The Miracles Of Jesus

It is also worth noting that many non-Christian historians from the ancient world document the miracles of Christ.

“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonders, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with please. He drew many after him both of the Jews and the gentiles. He was the Christ. When Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things about him, and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.” (Josephus, Antiquities 18:63-64)

Some object to this statement of Josephus, claiming that Christians tampered with the text. Yet the facts show the opposite!

“The rabbis and the anti-Christian Greek philosopher Celsus are clear that Jesus was a miracle worker. Of course, later non-Christian sources attributed his feats to sorcery, but that’s still an acknowledgment that something extraordinary took place. Also, the first-century Jewish historian Josephus wrote that Jesus was a wise man who ‘worked startling deeds.’” “Startling deeds?” “Yes. What’s significant is that this is the same way he describes the miracles associated with the prophet Elisha.” “But isn’t that passage in Josephus disputed?” I asked. “Critics charge it was added later by Christians.” “The Jewish historian Geza Vermes of Oxford analyzed the writing style of Josephus and concluded that this particular miracle claim is, indeed, authentic,” Keener said. 5 “Frankly, I have to agree with what scholar Raymond Brown said about Jesus, which is that even ‘the oldest traditions show him as a healer.” (Craig Keener in his interview with Lee Strobel, The Case For Miracles: A Journalist Investigates Evidence For The Supernatural, 85-86 (Kindle Edition); Grand Rapids, Michigan; Zondervan)

Notice some other ancient Jewish sources which document the miracles of Christ:

“On the eve of Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, “He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. Any one who can say anything in his favour, let him come forward and plead on his behalf.” But since nothing was brought forward in his favour he was hanged on the eve of the Passover!” (Babylonian Talmud)

The Talmud acknowledges Jesus’ miracles and tries to ascribe them to sorcery. Of course, that Jesus’ deeds were not sorcery is evident when we look at what the sorcerers of Jesus’ day did. There was no comparison between the miracles of Jesus and sorcery, which is one reason we know Christ wasn’t a sorcerer. Indeed, what is truly amazing is how these historical references bear witness to the miracles of Christ.


“We learn from the Jewish sources that Jesus was the firstborn son of Mary (the rabbis). He had followers (Josephus) or gathered disciples (the rabbis); he taught them and worked miracles (Josephus, the rabbis). He was put on trial and died by formal execution (Josephus, the rabbis). Either the Jews alone carried out his trial and execution (the rabbis), or the Romans did in some cooperation with Jewish leaders (Josephus). Jesus’ followers claimed that he rose from the dead (the rabbis), and his movement continued (Josephus, the rabbis). Jesus’ brother James was a leading figure in Jerusalem after Jesus’ death (Josephus).” (Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside The New Testament: An Introduction To The Ancient Evidence, 2100-2105 (Kindle Edition); Grand Rapids, Michigan; William B. Eerdman’s Publishing Company)

Then there are non-Jewish historians who bear witness to the miracles of Christ. One example is from the “Acts of Pontius Pilate,” an early official document which Christians encouraged their skeptical friends to consider to prove that the miracles of Christ took place.

“That he (Jesus, M.T.) performed these miracles you may easily satisfy yourself from the “Acts” of Pontius Pilate.” (Justin Martyr, First Apology 48.3)

Regarding the Acts Of Pontius Pilate, Cooper writes:

“The chances of a local rumour doing the rounds in Jerusalem reaching the emperor’s ears back in Rome are extremely slight. To reach the emperor at all, the rumour would have to hitch a ride to Rome on the back of an official communication, and there is good evidence indeed that just such a communication was sent from Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius about the Crucifixion and the Resurrection of our Lord. While that is not something that the critics would like to hear, it is important enough for us to consider just what this evidence is. We need firstly to bear in mind the fact that such a communication–an update on events in the province of Judaea–would be nothing extraordinary. Such communications were an expected and everyday occurrence, and woe betide the governor who neglected to send them. At the least, dereliction, treasonous thoughts or sabotage would be suspected. Nevertheless, this report must have been something special, because it seems to have had a profound effect on Tiberius himself who received it, Tiberius putting a motion to the Senate to have this Jesus added to the gods of Rome. Happily, the Senate declined the invitation because they’d hitherto heard nothing about this Man. We turn to Tertullian (AD 160-225) who, after describing the events leading up to the Crucifixion and Resurrection, writes: “Pilate, who in his conscience was a Christian, sent Tiberius Caesar an account of all these proceedings relating to Christ….” 20 Earlier, but on the same general subject, he invites the recipients of his Apology to: “Consult your annals….” 21 Now, just who was Tertullian writing to? Was it a friend or colleague?–a sympathiser of the Christians perhaps? No, by no means. He was writing to the magistrates of Carthage, to the very men who were then persecuting the Christians. To invite them to consult the state archives to test the truth of what he was saying was a brave move-and a foolish one if the annals had not existed, or had told a story contrary to his own. But this same record is also mentioned by a slightly earlier apologist of the Christian faith, Justin Martyr (AD 100-165): “… and for the truth of this you may satisfy yourselves from the acts of Pontius Pilate….” 22 Again the invitation to consult the state archives. Who was Justin writing to?-none other than the emperor of Rome at that time, Antoninus Pius, his sons, and the Senate of Rome. That again is quite a readership, and Justin would have been the most foolish man on earth to invite a hostile emperor to consult the archives on Pontius Pilate if those records had not been there to consult. Moreover, those archives must have held papers on the Crucifixion of Jesus and His subsequent Resurrection, including a report on the rumour that Matthew records about the disciples being thought to have stolen His body. It’s a wonder that the critics forget to mention these things. But there’s more. Eusebius, expanding on the subject, tells us: “Tiberius, therefore, under whom the name of Christ was spread throughout the world, when this doctrine was announced to him from Palestine where it first began, communicated with the senate, being obviously pleased with the doctrine; but the senate, as they had not proposed the measure, rejected it. But he continued in his opinion, threatening death to the accusers of the Christians; a divine providence infusing this into his mind, that the gospel, having freer scope in its commencement, might spread everywhere over the world.” 23 And it did spread everywhere too under Tiberius, as we know from the evidence concerning the Lady Pomponia and the arrival of the Gospel in Britain whilst Tiberius still reigned. But regarding the report sent by Pilate to Tiberius, it is important to consider this. Our secret and intelligence services get to know that things are about to happen by listening to ‘chatter’ on the internet and mobile phone networks, and what we have just examined is precisely the same kind of chatter that they listen to. In other words, what we have just read about the report from Pilate in Justin, Tertullian and Eusebius, would not be there for us to read unless that report had at one time existed, and had been available in the state archives for others to consult some two hundred years or more afterwards. It is as simple and as straightforward as that. The critics can howl that it isn’t true till they’re blue in the face if they wish, but eggs is eggs, and facts are facts are facts!” (Bill Cooper, The Authenticity Of The New Testament: Part One-The Gospels, 1274-1316 (Kindle Edition, emphasis added, M.T.).

Jesus Christ Was Not A Pagan Sorcerer

It is also helpful to observe just here that the pagans of Jesus’ day were able to recognize very clearly the difference between the sorcery of pagan religions and the miracles done in the name of Christ Jesus.

Acts 8:4-19-Therefore those who were scattered went everywhere preaching the word. 5  Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria and preached Christ to them. 6  And the multitudes with one accord heeded the things spoken by Philip, hearing and seeing the miracles which he did. 7  For unclean spirits, crying with a loud voice, came out of many who were possessed; and many who were paralyzed and lame were healed. 8  And there was great joy in that city. 9  But there was a certain man called Simon, who previously practiced sorcery in the city and astonished the people of Samaria, claiming that he was someone great, 10  to whom they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying, “This man is the great power of God.” 11  And they heeded him because he had astonished them with his sorceries for a long time. 12  But when they believed Philip as he preached the things concerning the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, both men and women were baptized. 13  Then Simon himself also believed; and when he was baptized he continued with Philip, and was amazed, seeing the miracles and signs which were done. 14  Now when the apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them, 15  who, when they had come down, prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit. 16  For as yet He had fallen upon none of them. They had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 17  Then they laid hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. 18  And when Simon saw that through the laying on of the apostles’ hands the Holy Spirit was given, he offered them money, 19  saying, “Give me this power also, that anyone on whom I lay hands may receive the Holy Spirit.”

McGarvey comments on this passage:

“Suffice it to say, that this single incident should put to silence forever that species of skepticism which resolves all the miracles of Christ and the apostles into occult art and optical illusions; for here are these arts, in their most delusive form, brought into direct conflict with apostolic miracles; and so palpable is the distinction, that it is at once discovered and acknowledged by the whole multitude.” (J.W. McGarvey, A Commentary on Acts of the Apostles, With a Revised Version of the Text, 7th Edition (With Active Table of Contents), 2383-2387 (Kindle Edition))

It is worthy of note that while many claim Jesus was a pagan sorcerer, no other sorcerer of antiquity (or of modern times) can perform the miracles that He said!

Thiede well points out:

“In AD 178, one of the fiercest critics of nascent Christianity, a certain Celsus (Kelsos in Greek), a man who disputed the validity of the Christian message with every philosophical and pseudo-rational argument he could muster, never for a moment doubted the historicity of Jesus’ miracles. They had all happened–but, Celsus alleged, Jesus had learned the art of miraculous healings and other such deeds when he stayed in Egypt as a young boy and was taught by Egyptian magicians. If this was so, it remains to be asked why Egyptian magicians themselves never performed such miracles.” (Peter Thiede, Jesus, Man or Myth? 63 (Kindle Edition); Oxford, England; Lion Books)

The miracles of Christ validate His claims and demonstrate that He is not a pagan sorcerer.

Proof Of The Bible

In the same way, Christians point to numerous evidences from the Bible itself which demonstrate that it is the Word of God (i.e., the astonishing ability of the Prophets of the Bible to describe in shocking clarity future events which were beyond their ability to see and which came to pass, the supernatural unity of the Bible, the amazing foreknowledge of scientific truths which we in our day and age are just now beginning to grasp, etc.).

We will examine the scriptures of the various pagan religious mentioned above in greater detail in future lessons; yet suffice it to say here, the Bible is in a class by itself regarding verifiable evidences of Divine inspiration.

It is because we can recognize the Divine inspiration of the Bible from the aforementioned evidences that we can trust it to be a reliable guide (2 Timothy 3:16-17).

With that in mind, what does the Bible teach about the existence of the various gods and goddesses of paganism?

Does The Bible Teach That There Are Many Gods?

It is a shock to many people (including many Christians) to learn that the Bible actually discusses the existence and reality of other gods in addition to the God of the Bible.

For example, when God was describing His punishment of the Egyptians, He declares:

Exodus 12:12-For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.”

Indeed, the Bible teaches in numerous places that there are multiple gods/goddesses.

Please consider:

Exodus 15:11-Who is like You, O LORD, among the gods? Who is like You, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?

Exodus 18:11-Now I know that the LORD is greater than all the gods; for in the very thing in which they behaved proudly, He was above them.”

Exodus 20:3- “You shall have no other gods before Me.

Numbers 33:4-For the Egyptians were burying all their firstborn, whom the LORD had killed among them. Also on their gods the LORD had executed judgments.

Deuteronomy 10:17-For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome, who shows no partiality nor takes a bribe.

Psalm 82:1-God stands in the congregation of the mighty; He judges among the gods.

Psalm 86:8-Among the gods there is none like You, O Lord; Nor are there any works like Your works.

Psalm 95:3-For the LORD is the great God, And the great King above all gods.

Psalm 96:4-For the LORD is great and greatly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods.

Psalm 135:5-For I know that the LORD is great, And our Lord is above all gods.

Many other Scriptures from both Old and New Testaments elaborate on this fact.

Doesn’t The Bible Teach That There Is Only One God?

Some may object, “No, the Bible teaches there is only one God.”

Perhaps they are thinking of passages like this:

Isaiah 44:6-“Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: ‘I am the First and I am the Last; Besides Me there is no God.”

Many passages of Scripture teach that there are other gods besides Jehovah (i.e., the God of the Bible). Yet some passages teach that there are no other gods besides the God of the Bible.

Is there a contradiction here?

Not at all.

Very simply, different words can carry different meanings and definitions. We are able to tell what a word means by several clues, including the context in which it is found.

We recognize this principle and apply it to our lives daily.

When the Bible talks about there being no god “besides” the God of the Bible, it means that there is only one TRUE God, not that other “gods” do not exist. Michael Heiser explains this very well:

“Another misguided strategy is to argue that statements in the Old Testament that have God saying “there is none besides me” mean that no other elohim exist. This isn’t the case. These phrases do not contradict Psalm 82 or others that, for example, say Yahweh is above all elohim or is the “God of gods [ elohim ].” I’ve written a lot on this subject—it was a focus of my doctoral dissertation. 12 These “denial statements,” as they are called by scholars, do not assert that there are no other elohim . In fact, some of them are found in chapters where the reality of other elohim is affirmed. We’ve already seen that Deuteronomy 32:17 refers to elohim that Paul believed existed. Deuteronomy 32:8–9 also refers to the sons of God. Deuteronomy 4:19–20 is a parallel to that passage, and yet Deuteronomy 4:35 says there is no god besides Yahweh. Is Scripture filled with contradictions? No. These “denial statements” do not deny that other elohim exist. Rather, they deny that any elohim compares to Yahweh. They are statements of incomparability. This point is easily illustrated by noticing where else the same denial language shows up in the Bible. Isaiah 47:8 and Zephaniah 2:15 have, respectively, Babylon and Nineveh saying “there is none besides me.” Are we to believe that the point of the phrase is to declare that no other cities exist except Babylon or Nineveh? That would be absurd. The point of the statement is that Babylon and Nineveh considered themselves incomparable , as though no other city could measure up to them. This is precisely the point when these same phrases are used of other gods—they cannot measure up to Yahweh. The Bible does not contradict itself on this point. Those who want to argue that the other elohim do not exist are at odds with the supernatural worldview of the biblical writers.” (Michael S. Heiser, Unseen Realm: Recovering The Supernatural Worldview Of The Bible, 571-595 (Kindle Edition); Bellingham, WA; Lexham Press)

One True God

The Bible is clear that there are indeed many gods and goddesses:

1 Corinthians 8:5-6-“It’s really not important if there are things called gods in heaven or on earth—and there are many of these “gods” and “lords” out there. 6  For us there is only one God, and he is our Father. All things came from him, and we live for him. And there is only one Lord, Jesus Christ. All things were made through him, and we also have life through him.”

However, the Bible is also clear that there is only one TRUE God.

There is only one eternal God Who has always existed! Not only is this the teaching of Scripture, but it is the only logical conclusion drawn from the evidence of nature.

One author has written:

“We know from the cosmological and divine design (teleological) evidences of the universe that God must be infinite because He created all space, all time and all matter from nothing. Infinite simply means that He is self- existent, non- spatial, immaterial, timeless, personal, unimaginably powerful and supremely intelligent etc. In other words, there is nothing lacking in Him. The fact that God is infinite impliedly rules out all pantheistic religions such as the New Age Movement, Hinduism and some forms of Buddhism that equate God to the universe as we have seen that universe is not infinite as it had a beginning and was designed by another cause. This fact also disproves polytheistic religions (the belief that there are many gods) such as Mormonism, as there logically cannot be more than one omnipresent infinite being. Let me explain more simply: If there was more than one God (e.g. God “A” and God “B”), then to distinguish one from the other they must differ in some way. If God “A” is infinite then God “B” must be less than infinite (i.e. infinite minus something), as the definition of infinite means that God “A” lacks nothing. Therefore, if God “B” is less than infinite he is not God! Therefore, we can only logically conclude that there can only be one Infinite Being or God who is transcendent or outside all time, all space and all matter.” (Paul Ferguson, God And The Atheist: A Lawyer Assesses The Evidence For The Existence Of God, 1133-1144 (Kindle Edition); Greenville,, South Carolina; Ambassador International)

In order for there to be a measurable difference between the “gods,” then one or more would need to be imperfect. Yet imperfection demands something greater than itself by which the imperfection is measured. Therefore, the “imperfect” cannot truly be God.

So there is only one true God.

Yet if there is only one TRUE god, then who (or WHAT) are the other gods and goddesses mentioned in the Bible?

According to the Bible, God created another group of intelligent creatures besides humanity which are known as angels.

Psalm 104:4-Who makes His angels spirits, His ministers a flame of fire.

Hebrews 1:14-Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation?

The angels of God are often called “sons of God” throughout the Bible (Genesis 6:1-4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7). Indeed, we are told that many of these angels at one time rebelled against God, being led by another fallen angel named Satan.

Revelation 12:3-12-And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads.4  His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. And the dragon stood before the woman who was ready to give birth, to devour her Child as soon as it was born. 5  She bore a male Child who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron. And her Child was caught up to God and His throne. 6  Then the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that they should feed her there one thousand two hundred and sixty days. 7  And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, 8  but they did not prevail, nor was a place found for them in heaven any longer. 9  So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. 10  Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, “Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down. 11  And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death. 12  Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time.”

Now, according to the Psalms, God addresses the pagan gods and goddesses….and identifies them as these fallen angels!

Psalm 82:1, 6-God stands in the congregation of the mighty; He judges among the gods….I said, “You are gods, And all of you are children of the Most High.

The gods and goddesses of the pagan religions are the fallen angels who rebelled against the one true God.

The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit, be with you all. Amen.


1. According to Psalm 82, who are the gods and goddesses of the pagan religions? _______________________________________________

2. What are some ways that we know there is only one true God? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3. What was the purpose of miracles? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. List some of the ancient non-biblical historians and historical documents which document the miracles of Jesus Christ. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. What does Revelation 12:3-12 teach us about Satan? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. What does the word “pagan” have reference to? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. “We are in the position of a little child entering a huge _______________ filled with books in many different languages. The child knows _____________ must have written those books. It does not know how. It does not understand the ________________ in which they are written. The child dimly suspects a mysterious order in the arrangement of the books, but doesn’t know what it is. That, it seems to me, is the attitude of even the most _____________ human being toward ______. We see a Universe marvelously ___________ and _______________ certain __________, but only dimly understand these laws. Our limited minds cannot grasp the __________________ __________ that moves the ___________________.” (Einstein, as quoted in Denis Brian, Einstein: A Life, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1996, 186).

Leave a Reply

Powered by

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: